Time Management


Knowledge Areas Major Processes Primary Inputs Tools & Techniques Primary Outputs
TIME                    DSRDDC      
 Activity Definition Identifying the specific schedule activities that need be performed to produce the various project deliverables 1. Enterprise environmental factors

2. Organizational Process Assets

3. Project Scope Statement

4. Project Management Plan

5. Work breakdown structure

6. WBS dictionary

1. Decomposition

2. Templates

3. Rolling wave planning

4. Planning component

5. Expert Judgment

1. Activity List

2. Activity Attributes

3. Milestone list

4. Request Changes

 Activity Sequencing Identifying and documenting dependencies among schedule activities 1. Project Scope Statement

2. Activity list

3. Activity Attributes

4. Milestone list

5. Approved Change Requests

1. PDM

2. ADM

3. Schedule Network templates

4. Dependency determination

5. Applying leads and lags

1. Project Schedule Network diagrams

2. Activity list (updates)

3. Activity attributes (updates)

4. Requested changes

 Activity Resource Estimating Estimating the type and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity 1. Enterprise environmental factors

2. Organizational Process Assets

3. Project Management Plan

4. Activity list

5. Activity Attributes

6. Resource Availability

1. Bottom-up estimating

2. Alternatives Analysis

3. Published estimated data

4. Project Management Software

5. Expert Judgment

1. Activity resource requirements

2. Activity attributes (updates)

3. Resource calendar (updates)

4. Resource Breakdown Structure

5. Requested changes

 Activity Duration Estimating Estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete each schedule activities. 1. Enterprise environmental factors

2. Organizational Process Assets

3. Project Scope Statement

4. Project Management Plan

    .Risk register

   .Activity Cost estimates

5. Activity list

6. Activity Attributes

7. Activity Resource requirements

8. Resource Calendar

1. Analogous estimating

2. Parametric estimating

3. Three-point estimates

4. Reserve Analysis

5. Expert judgment

1. Activity Duration estimates
2. Activity attributes (updates)
 Schedule Development Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. 1. Enterprise environmental factors

2. Project Scope Statement

3. Project Management Plan

    . Risk register

4. Activity list

5. Activity Attributes

6. Project Schedule network diagrams

7. Activity Resource requirements

8. Resource Calendars

9. Activity duration estimates

1. Schedule Network analysis

2. Critical path method

3. Schedule Compression

4. What-if scenario analysis

5. Resource leveling

6. Critical chain method

7. Project management software

8. Applying calendars

9. Adjusting leads and lags

10. Schedule model

1. Project schedule

2. Schedule model data

3. Schedule baseline

4. Resource requirements (updates)

5. Activity attributes (updates)

6. Project calendar (updates)

7. Requested Changes

8. Project Management Plan (updates)

    .Schedule Management Plan  (updates)

 Schedule Control Controlling changes to the project schedule. 1. Schedule management plan

2. Schedule baseline

3. Performance reports

4. Approved Change requests

1. Progress Reporting

2. Schedule change control system

3. Performance measurement

4. Project management software

5. Variance analysis

6. Schedule comparison bar charts

1. Schedule model data (updates)

2. Schedule baseline (updates)

3. Activity list (updates)

4. Activity Attributes (updates)

5. Performance measurements

6. Requested changes

7. Recommended Corrective actions

8. Project Management Plan (updates)

9. Organizational Process Assets (updates)


Project Time Management – processes required to ensure timely completion of the project

Time Management – In small projects Activity Definition, Sequencing, Resource Estimation, Duration Estimation and Schedule development are so tightly linked that they are viewed as single process.


Activity Definition – involves identifying and documenting the work that is planned to be performed. Here work packages are planned (decomposed) into schedule activities to provide basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring and controlling the project work.

Its final output is schedule activity where as final output is deliverable in create WBS process.

It is done by the project team members responsible for the work packages.

Planning Component (TT used in Activity Definition)

  1. Control account: above work package and below WBS. All the work effort performed within a control account is documented in a “control account plan”
  2. Planning component: above work package but below control account

Decomposition (TT used in Activity Definition)

  1. Involves sub dividing the Work Packages into smaller components called schedule activities.
  2. Activity Definition output is schedule activities not Deliverables (Create WBS output is Deliverables)
  3. Activity list, WBS and WBS dictionary can be developed either sequentially or concurrently.
  4. Performed by team members responsible for the work package.

Activity List (output of activity definition)

  • Includes all schedule activity that is required as part of the project scope
  • It includes the activity identifier and scope of work description for each schedule activity in sufficient detail.
  • It is used in schedule model and is part of PMP
  • Schedule Activity’s scope of work can be in physical terms such as linear feet of pipe or lines of computer program.

Schedule Activity are discrete components of the project schedule but are not components of the WBS

Activity Attributes (output) – for each SA contains Activity identifier, activity Code, Activity Description, Predecessor Activities, Successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints and assumptions, personal responsible for, geographical area, level of effort,

Milestone (input) – Can be mandatory or optional, it a component of PMP, included in SS and WBSD and used in schedule model.


Activity Sequencing involves identifying and documenting the logical relationship among the schedule activities.


Arrow Diagramming Method (AOA): PERT and CPM focuses on float duration, to determine which activities have the least scheduling flexibility. Only Show finish-to-start relationship. Used by CPM

Precedence Diagram Method (AON): Represents improvement to PERT and CPM by adding lag relationships to activities 

[Start to Start; Start to Finish; Finish to Start; Finish to Finish]. Work is done during activity. Arrow indicates dependency.

No dummy, its used by most softwares.


  • Mandatory or Hard logic: Often involve physical or technological limitations (based on the nature of work being done)
  • Discretionary: may also be called preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Soft:  desirable and customary (based on experience). Preferential:  preferred or mandated by a customer (also, need of the project sponsor) Defined by PM Team. It is documented so that can be exploited for the schedule compression. All above are based on past experience
  • External: Input needed from another project or source

Apply Leads and Lags – Lead allows acceleration of the successor activity, A lag direct a delay in Successor activity.


Activity Resource Estimation – Identifies when and what resources (person, equipment or material) required for a schedule activity and what quantities of each resources will be available. It is closely coordinated with Cost estimating process.

Schedule Management Plan (Input) – Development of Schedule Management Plan is part of Develop Project Management Plan Process. SMP is a subsidiary plan of PMP and may formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed depending on the project. This plan sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule.

Bottom Up Estimation (TT of Resource Estimation) – Estimation is done for lower level items and then aggregated.

Output: Activity resource requirements, Resource Calendar(update), RBS it is a hierarchical structure of resources by category & type.

Activity – consumes time (eg testing)

Events – specified accomplishment / does not consume time (eg tested)

Activity Duration Estimate – requires to estimate amount of work effort required, the assumed amount of resources to be applied and the number of work periods needed to complete the schedule activity is determined.

Resource Calendar (Input) includes availability, capability and skills of human resources.

TT for Activity Duration Estimation

  1. Analogous Estimation – Using actual duration of previous similar schedule activity. It is at the project level, generally given to PM from Management or Sponsor; uses historical information and Expert Judgment and it is a form of Top Down estimate.
  2. Parametric Estimation – Quantity of Work * Productivity Rate – 1.Regression Analysis (Scatter Diagram) 2.Learning Curve. Results of Parametric Estimation can become heuristics. It is based on historical records.
  3. Three Point Estimates Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Three-Point Estimate = (O + 4M + P)/6   Where O is Optimistic, M is Most likely and P is Pessimistic  standard deviation = (P – O)/6  variance = standard deviation(To add standard deviations: convert to variance then add; take the square root of the sum). Best method when you have no historical data for a similar task. Result is the 50% point (mean).The probability of completing a project at or later than its expected time is 50%
  4. Reserve Analysis: Contingency reserve (known unknown) is for remaining risk after risk response planning and management reserve (unknown- unknown) is any extra amount of funds to be set aside to cover unforeseen risk. Cost baseline will include contingency reserve and cost budget will include management reserve. Contingency reserve is created as a part of contingency plan and used when identified (residual) risk as a part of active acceptance strategy, occurs.
  5. Expert Judgment time reserve, Contingency Reserve or buffers as recognition of schedule risk. They can be % of the estimates.

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)—allows for probabilistic treatment of both network logic and activity duration estimates. It is a form of ADM (A Network Drawing Method) that allows loops between activities. The easiest example is when you have an activity to design a component and then test it. A network diagram drawing method that allows loops between tasks. It is a method of sequencing (e.g. a project requires redesign after completion of testing)


PM Role on estimating

  1. Provide team with enough info to estimate
  2. Set accuracy level for estimates
  3. Do a sanity check
  4. Prevent padding
  5. Formulate reserve
  6. Make sure assumption are recorded


Schedule development: difference between time estimate and schedule is that the schedule is calendar based.

Imposed Dates – Imposed dates in Scope Statement (I/P to Schedule Development Process) restrict the start or finish date.

Schedule Network Analysis (TT for Schedule Development)

  1. Critical Path Method – Calculate Project Duration, Critical path length and Float. Critical path can have 0 or negative total float. Uses only one time estimates. Doesn’t consider risk as important as cost so it focuses on controlling cost and leaving schedule flexible. Uses only ADM (AOA) diagram
  2. Schedule Compression – Crashing (Additional Resources) and Fast Tracking (Parallel)
  3. What if Scenario – Monte Carlo Analysis in which a distribution of possible activity duration is defined for each schedule activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcome for the total project. It helps to assess feasibility of the project schedule under adverse condition and in preparing contingency and response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact.
  4. Applying calendars:  identifying periods when work is allowed. Project calendar (affects all project activities like snowfall season no work can be planned) and Resource calendar affect a specific resource or category or resources like shift timings, planned vacations)
  5. Schedule Compression Methods – occurs after activity duration estimating and before finalizing the schedule. Include Crashing – when you are worried about time, not so much about costs. Fast Track – activities that are done in sequence are done in parallel, involve increases risk and rework, it is done on discretionary dependencies. Should fast track tasks on the critical path (float = 0) in order to save time. Re-estimate should be done by reviewing risks.
  6. Resource Leveling – Applied after Critical Path Method, Keep resource usage at constant level. Allows you to level the peaks and valleys of resource use from one month to another. Also know as resource based method and resource constrained schedule and produces resource limited schedule. Often results in a project duration that is longer than the preliminary schedule. Resource reallocation from non-critical to critical path activities is a common way to bring the schedule back, or as close as possible, to the originally intended overall duration. So 1. Schedule can slip 2. Cost increase. Reverse Resource allocation scheduling: based on finite and critical project resource (end date), in this case the resource is scheduled in reverse from the project ending date.
  7. Critical Chain Method – deterministic and probabilistic approach. In lieu of managing the total float of network paths, the critical chain method focuses on managing the buffer activity durations and the resources applied to planned schedule activities.
    1. Project schedule network diagram is built using non conservative/most likely estimates with required dependency and defines constraints. Each activity is schedule to occur as late as possible to meet end date.
    2. Then Critical Path is calculate and
    3. Then resource limited schedule is determined making a altered critical path.
    4. Then add duration buffers that are non work schedule activities to maintain focus on the planned activity durations. Think of them as reserves from risk response planning.
    5. Then planned activities are schedule to their latest possible planned start and finish dates.


Float / Slack – 1.Free 2. Total. A negative slack on the critical path means that the project is behind schedule. Free Float – amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start of its successor. Total Float – amount of time that an activity may be delayed from early start without delaying the project finish date

 “Start no earlier than” & “Finish no later than” – Respectively #1 and #2 most popular date constraint in project management software.

Monte Carlo Analysis – computer simulation of project outcomes using PERT estimates; result represented in S curve. Provides the ability to compute the probability of completing a project on a specific day. Can also be used to assess feasibility of schedule under adverse conditions (e,g., when a schedule constraint is identified)

Monte Carlo Analysis – 1. Probability of Completion and any specific day 2. Probability of Completion in amount of Cost 3.Probability of activity in critical path 4. Risk

Time Estimate – Non-Calendar      Schedule – Calendar Based

Output Schedule development


Project network diagrams. Project network diagrams are schematic displays of the project’s activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them.

Barchart  (Gantt) 1. Weak Planning Tools 2. Good reporting tools 3. No Dependency Shown 4. No Resources shown

Hammock Activity – O/p of Schedule Development -> Bar Charts -> For Control and management communication, the broader more comprehensive summary activity called Hammock Activity is used between milestones or across multiple interdependent work packages.

Milestone Chart: Significant events; good for communicating status to top management.

Schedule development:

  1. Work with stakeholder priorities
  2. Look for alternative ways to complete the work
  3. Look for impact on other projects
  4. Meet with managers to negotiate for resources availability
  5. Give a team to approve the schedule
  6. Look at calendar estimates to see if they are feasible.
  7. Compress the schedule
  8. Adjust all the component of PMP
  9. Simulate using monte carlo anal
  10. Level resources
  11. Conduct meetings and conversation to gain stakeholder and mgmt approval.


Schedule Control: part of ICC

  1. Determining current status of the project schedule
  2. Influencing the factors that create changes
  3. Determining if schedule has changes
  4. Managing actual changes as they occur

Schedule Baseline – the original, approved project schedule; should never be changed without approved Change request.  Any approved change should be documented in writing. Should be created at the beginning of the project and used during the project to gauge (measure) overall project performance, not just schedule. The project Performance Measurement Baseline should generally change only in response to a scope or deliverable change.

Schedule Change Control System – defines procedures for changing the project schedule and includes the documentation, tracking systems, and approval levels required for authorizing schedule changes and part of Integrated Change Control Process.


Fragment Network – Portions of project schedule network diagram are often referred to as a Sub network or Fragment Network. Sub Network templates are useful when project has several identical or nearly identical deliverables.

Heuristics – rules of thumb

Near Critical Path – Path is close in duration to critical path, the close it is the more RISK project has.

Variance – Plan minus Actual

Lag – waiting time between two tasks (negative lead)

Resource Planning Tools  
Responsibility Matrix Identify who does what at what time/phase of the project,
Resource Spreadsheet Quantifies how much work is needed from each resource during each time period
Resource Gantt Chart Identify the periods of time (e.g. calendar date) when a particular resource is working on a particular task
Resource Histogram

(Resource Loading Chart)

Vertical bar chart showing the total number of resources needed during each time period


Progress Report – 50/50, 20/80, 0/100 – An Activity is considered X percent complete when it begins and gets credit of the last 100-X percent only when it is completed.

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